B C D E F
I J K
L M N O P Q
R S T
U V W X
AA Authors Alterations, changes other than corrections,
made by a client after the proofing process has begun. AAs are usually
charged to a client as billable time.
Artwork The finished composition or the graphical
elements used in printing or electronic publishing.
Basis Weight The weight in pounds of a ream of
paper in its uncut basic size (which varies from grade to grade).
Binding The process of attaching loose sheets
of paper into a book or other multipage document.
Bleed When an image runs off the edge of a sheet.
Normally, a printer requires the image to extend a quarter inch
beyond finsihed trim mark.
Blueline A printer's proof, actually blue on white
paper. All AAs and corrections should have been made prior to seeing
BMP A DOS native graphics format not generally
used in professional printing or online design.
Camera Ready Type and/or artwork that has been
pasted into position to be photographed for plate ready film.
Choke (Choking) When trapping color closing the
open spaces in a graphic to be filled with another color.
CMYK The acronym for the four process color inks:
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black.
Color Key A printer's proof, actually four sheets
of colored acetate, for examining the quality of process color separations.
This process is normally used when printing on a press capable of
fewer than four colors at once. All AAs and corrections should have
been made prior to seeing a color key.
Color Separation Literally separating the areas
of a piece to be printed into its component spot and process ink
colors. Each color to be printed must have its own printing plate.
Color Space The parts of the visible spectrum
which can be reproduced in a given medium. (i.e. RGB for computer
monitors, CMYK for print, web safe index colors for the world wide
Comb Binding A plastic comb is inserted through
pre-cut holes to bind the book. There is no flat spine for printing
Composite Image A photograph or other graphic
image, that is made of a combination of multiple images.
Conversion The process of creating a three dimensional
(3D) item from a flat sheet of paper. i.e. envelope conversion /
Copy The prose or other text used in advertising
and printed material.
Copyright (©) A group of legal rights granted
to the author or creator of written or visual work. All work appearing
with the © symbol or the word "copyright" is protected
by its creator or his heirs. For more information, contact your
Copy Writer The individual who writes the prose
or "copy" for an advertisement or brochure.
Desktop Publishing A process for creating camera
ready and plate ready artwork on a personal computer. Though once
in vogue, this term is now usually associated with low end, less
Digital Imaging The process of creating a digital
copy of an illustrated or photographic image.
Digital Photography The process of recording images
using a digital camera or a conventional camera with a digital adapter.
Digital Printing A system of printing, which involves
linking printing presses and computers, bypassing the traditional
route of making printing plates.
Dot Gain A phenomenon, which occurs when wet ink
comes in contact with paper. As the halftone dots are applied to
the paper, the wet ink spreads, causing the dots to increase in
size and halftones to appear darker. A number of factors affect
Electronic Publishing A process by which information
is created and/ or distributed in electronic or magnetic formats.
(i.e. CD ROM or web.) The usage of this term has expanded to include
digitally created designs that are reproduced on conventional printing
EPS (EPSF) Encapsulated Postscript File. A vector
based, computer graphics file format developed by Adobe Systems.
EPS is the preferred format for many computer illustrations, because
of its efficient use of memory and fine color control.
Foil Stamping A mechanical process that results
in the bonding of colored foil to paper.
FPO (For Position Only) A low resolution image
inserted into a layout to be replaced by a full resolution image
before or during the prepress process.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) The method for uploading
and downloading files to/from internet server systems.
GIF An eight bit (256 colors or shades of grey)
or less computer file format. Though commonly used to post photographic
images to computer bulletin boards, GIF files are almost never used
for professional printing.
Graphic A non text item (Illustration or photograph)
to be printed.
Graphic Design A process of problem solving, using
visual elements (pictures and type) usually to communicate a concept
Graphic Designer An individual who solves communication
problems, using visual elements (pictures & type) to convey
an idea or concept.
Halftone A reproduction of a continuous tone image
(i.e. a photograph or painting) using fine dots of varying size
and spacing to reproduce the shades and textures of the original.
Hardcopy Another name for camera ready. Black
and white original copy that is ready to be processed for printing.
No additional work necessary.
Illustrator An individual who draws or paints
or otherwise creates original artistic images for use in commercial
Imagesetter A high resolution device that prints
directly to plate ready film.
Imposition The process of positioning multiple
pages on a flat sheet of paper to be printed at one time.
Inch A unit of measurement equal to six (6) picas
or seventy two (72) points. Normally used by design clients and
ISBN International Standard Book Number. A ten-digit
number that uniquely identifies a publication worldwide.
JPEG Joint Photographic Electronic Group. A common
standard for compressing image data for electronic delivery (CD
ROM or Web). JPEG is not commonly used in printing because of data
loss which leads to degraded images.
Laminated Cover A thin film that adds a gloss
finish to a cover and protects the finish from being damaged.
LCCN Library of Congress Catalog Number. If you
plan to sell your book to libraries, it is a good idea to have an
Lupe (Loupe) From the German word for magnifying
glass, a lens used by photographers, printers, and designers to
examine details in printed materials.
Match Print A color proofing system developed
by 3M. All AAs and corrections should have been made prior to seeing
a Match Print.
Mechanical Board mounted, camera ready artwork
intended for use in traditional (non digital) prepress.
Offset Printing (Offset lithography) Currently
the most common commercial printing method, in which ink is offset
from the printing plate to to a rubber roller then to paper.
Paste-up The process of physically adhering artwork,
galleys, and other type to a paste board other substrate, usually
with hot wax or other adhesive. The product of the paste-up process.
Paste Board The physical substrate, usually composed
of a stiff paper board, used for composing camera ready artwork.
PDF Portable Document file. A proprietary format
developed by Adobe Systems for the transfer of designs across multiple
Perfect Binding A book binding process where pages
are glued together and directly to the cover of the book.
Photo CD A proprietary format developed by Eastman
Kodak for storing photographic images on a compact disc. Images
can be easily accessed for use in professional printing.
PhotoCopy A mechanical printing process that uses
a light sensitive printing element, electrostatic toner and a heating
element to fuse the toner to the paper.
Photo Illustration An image, primarily consisting
of a photograph or composite image containing a photograph.
Photo Plate A light sensitive printing plate.
The plate is developed like film, then used on a printing press.
Photograph An image or picture made by exposing
light sensitive film with a camera.
Pica A unit of measurement equal to twelve (12)
points or one sixth (1/6) of an inch. Used by designers and other
graphics professional for its precision.
Pixel Depth The amount of data used to describe
each colored dot on the computer screen. i.e. Monochrome is 1 bit
deep. Greyscale is 8 bits deep. RGB is 24 bits deep. Images to be
printed as CMYK separation should be 32 bits deep.
Plate Ready Film Final photographic film or other
artwork used to "burn" printing plates. No addtional paste-up
or stripping should be required if artwork is actually plate ready.
PMS color (Pantone Matching System) A proprietary
color system for choosing and matching specific spot and process
Point A unit of measurement equal to 1/12th of
a pica or 1/72nd of an inch. Normally used to measure type size
or fractions of a pica for the design process.
PrePress The various printing related services,
performed before ink is actually put on the printing press. (i.e.
stripping, scanning, color separating, etc. . .)
Press Proof A sheet of paper used as reference
Printing The process of applying ink to paper.
Process Color The mechanical process of reproducing
a full color image with the three primary subtractive color inks
(CMYK/ Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) and black. When viewed under
a lupe, the individual color halftone dots can be seen in a process
Reflective Art Artwork which is neither digital
nor transparent. Reflective art requires either scanning or camera
work to be printed.
Registration The quality of alignment of the different
colored inks as they are applied to paper. (i.e. If the inks can
be seen to overlap improperly or to leave white gaps on the page,
the printing is said to be "out of registration" or "poorly
RGB Red Green Blue, the colors used by a computer
monitor to create color images on the screen.
Score To imprint a crease. It is preferable to
score heavy paper before folding it, in order to avoid cracking.
Service Bureau The facility that provides professional
services to graphics and printing professionals. (i.e. plate ready
film, matchprints, colorkeys, etc...)
Signature (Sig) All pages of a book or other bound
print job, to be printed on a single pass through a printing press.
On small presses 2 pages, on larger presses always a number divisible
by 4 or 8 pages. (Bound pages are always in groups divisible by
four, 2 outside and 2 inside pages.)
Spiral Binding A wire is inserted through a series
of holes in a spiral fashion to bind the book. There is no flat
spine for printing title information.
Spot Color Single colors applied to printing when
process color is not necessary (i.e. one, two and three color printing),
or when process colors need to be augmented (i.e. a fluorescent
pink headline or a metallic tint).
Spread 1) A design that encompasses two or more
facing pages (i.e. the center spread in the morning newspaper 2)
Literally, spreading the ink around a colored object so that there
is no gap between it and the next colored object. (i.e. yellow text
on a blue background.)
TIFF Tagged Image File Format, a bitmapped file
format used for the reproduction of continuous tone images such
as photographs and illustrations.
Trapping The process of closing gaps between different
color inks as they appear on the printed page. Trapping color is
achieved by use of chokes and spreads.
Vector Graphics Any of a number of graphics formats
including EPS(F) and DXF which describe objects on the screen not
as colored pixels but as mathematically defined shapes. Vector graphics
can be rescaled to any size wthout any effect to file size. Typically,
vector graphics occupy less disk space than their bitmapped (rasterized)